Figure 1.1
Distribution of NHANES participants with diabetes, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & single-sample markers of CKD, 2007-2012
Distribution of NHANES participants with diabetes, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & single-sample markers of CKD, 2007-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants age 20 & older. Note: Cardiovascular disease designation is based on self-report of any CVD condition (see CKD Analytical Methods chapter for detail); CKD is defined as eGFR <60 or ACR ≥30. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; SR CVD, self-reported cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.2
Prevalence of CKD by stage among NHANES participants, 1988-2012
Prevalence of CKD by stage among NHANES participants, 1988-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease.

Figure 1.3
eGFR distribution among NHANES participants, 1988-2012
(a) All individuals
All individuals
(b) Individuals 60+ years
Individuals 60+ years
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate. Accounts for change in serum creatinine assays.

Figure 1.4
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio distribution among NHANES participants, 1988-2012
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio distribution among NHANES participants, 1988-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of ACR. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio.

Prognosis of CKD by KDIGO 2012 eGFR and albuminuria categories, percentage of NHANES participants, 1988-2012

Prevalence (%) of CKD in NHANES population within age, sex, race/ethnicity, & risk-factor categories, 1988-2012

Figure 1.5
Prevalence of CKD by age & risk factor among NHANES participants, 1988-2012
Prevalence of CKD by age & risk factor among NHANES participants, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Diabetes defined as either HbA1c >7%, self-reported, or currently taking glucose-lowering medications. Hypertension defined as BP ≥130/≥80 for those with diabetes or CKD, otherwise BP ≥140/≥90, or taking medication for hypertension. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; ;HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-reported.

Figure 1.6
NHANES participants with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, by age & risk factor, 1998-2012
NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Diabetes defined as either HbA1c >7%, self-reported (SR), or currently taking glucose-lowering medications. Hypertension defined as BP ≥130/≥80 for those with diabetes or CKD, otherwise BP ≥140/≥90, or taking medication for hypertension. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-reported.

Figure 1.7
NHANES participants with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, by age & risk factor, 1988-2012
NHANES participants with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, by age & risk factor, 1988-2012
Data source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of ACR. Diabetes defined as either HbA1c >7%, self-reported (SR), or currently taking glucose-lowering medications. Hypertension defined as BP ≥130/≥80 for those with diabetes or CKD, otherwise BP ≥140/≥90, or taking medication for hypertension. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.8
Distribution of markers of CKD in NHANES participants with diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & obesity, 2007–2012
Distribution of markers of CKD in NHANES participants with diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & obesity, 2007–2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; SR CVD, self-reported cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension.

Figure 1.9
Adjusted odds ratios of CKD in NHANES participants by risk factor, 1988-2012
Adjusted odds ratios of CKD in NHANES participants by risk factor, 1988-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. CKD defined as presence of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and either eGFR <60 or ACR ≥30 for each of the comorbid conditions. Adjusted for age, sex, & race; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.10
Adjusted odds ratios of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1988-2012
(a) Age category
Age category
(b) CKD risk factor
CKD risk factor
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR. Adjusted for age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.11
Adjusted odds ratios of urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1988-2012
Adjusted odds ratios of urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older; single-sample estimates of ACR. Adjusted for age, sex, & race. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Awareness, treatment, & measures of control of CKD risk factors, percent of NHANES participants, 1988-2012

Figure 1.12
NHANES participants at target blood pressure, 1988-2012
NHANES participants at target blood pressure, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Figure represents all hypertensive participants including those who were at target blood pressure, probably due to medication. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.13
NHANES participants within uric acid normal range, 1988-2012
NHANES participants within uric acid normal range, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.14
NHANES participants not currently smoking, 1988-2012
NHANES participants not currently smoking, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.15
Diabetic NHANES participants with glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 1988-2012
Diabetic NHANES participants with glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 1998-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–1994, 1999-2004 & 2007–2012 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.16
NHANES participants with CKD aware of their kidney disease, 2001-2012
NHANES participants with CKD aware of their kidney disease, 2001-2012
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2012 participants aged 20 & older. Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease.

Figure 1.17
Estimated prevalence of self-reported kidney disease by state, BRFSS participants, 2012 (N = 464,494)
Estimated prevalence of self-reported kidney disease by state, BRFSS participants, 2012 (N = 464,494)
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2012 participants aged 20 & older.