Kidney Disease Outcomes and Quality Improvement (KDOQI) CKD Staging Guidelines

Figure 1.1
Prevalence of CKD by stage among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Prevalence of CKD by stage among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviation: CKD, chronic kidney disease. .

Figure 1.2
eGFR distribution among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
(a) All Individuals
All Individuals
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; SE, standard error. Accounts for change in serum creatinine assays.
(b) Individuals 60+ years
Individuals 60+ years
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; SE, standard error. Accounts for change in serum creatinine assays.

Figure 1.3
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) distribution among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) distribution among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of ACR. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin (mg)/creatinine(g) ratio.

Figure 1.4
Percentage of NHANES (1999-2014) participants with ACR >30 mg/g, by eGFR category
Percentage of NHANES (1999-2014) participants with ACR >30 mg/g, by eGFR category

Percentage in each category (2011-2014)

Prevalence (%) of CKD in NHANES population within age, sex, race/ethnicity, & risk-factor categories, 1999-2014

Figure 1.5
Prevalence of CKD by age & risk factor among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Prevalence of CKD by age & risk factor among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2014 participants age 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Diabetes defined as HbA1c >7 percent, self-reported, or currently taking glucose-lowering medications. Hypertension defined as BP ≥130/≥80 for those with diabetes or CKD, otherwise BP ≥140/≥90, or taking medication for hypertension. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-reported.

Figure 1.6
NHANES participants with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
NHANES participants with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010, & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Diabetes defined as HbA1c >7 percent, self-reported (SR), or currently taking glucose-lowering medications. Hypertension defined as BP ≥130/≥80 for those with diabetes or CKD, otherwise BP ≥140/≥90, or taking medication for hypertension. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-reported

Figure 1.7
NHANES participants with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
NHANES participants with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
Data source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Diabetes defined as HbA1c >7 percent, self-reported (SR), or currently taking glucose-lowering medications. Hypertension defined as BP ≥130/≥80 for those with diabetes or CKD, otherwise BP ≥140/≥90, or taking medication for hypertension. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.8
Distribution of markers of CKD in NHANES participants with diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & obesity, 2011–2014
Distribution of markers of CKD in NHANES participants with diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & obesity, 2011–2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; SR CVD, self-reported cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension.

Figure 1.9
Adjusted odds ratios of CKD in NHANES participants by risk factor, 1999-2014
Adjusted odds ratios of CKD in NHANES participants by risk factor, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adj: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.10
Adjusted odds ratios of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
(a) Age category
Age category
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adj: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.
(b) CKD risk factor
CKD risk factor
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adj: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.11
Adjusted odds ratios of urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
Adjusted odds ratios of urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adjusted: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Awareness, treatment, & measures of control of CKD risk factors, percent of NHANES participants, 1999-2014

Figure 1.12
NHANES participants at target blood pressure, 1999-2014
NHANES participants at target blood pressure, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Figure represents all hypertensive participants including those who were at target blood pressure, probably due to medication. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.13
NHANES participants within cholesterol normal range, 1999-2014
NHANES participants within cholesterol normal range, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.14
NHANES participants physically active, 1999-2014
NHANES participants physically active, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.15
Diabetic NHANES participants with glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 1999-2014
Diabetic NHANES participants with glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.16
NHANES participants with CKD aware of their kidney disease, 2001-2012
(a) By stage
By stage
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2012 participants aged 20 & older. Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease.
(b) By low eGFR and albuminuria status
By low eGFR and albuminuria status
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2012 participants aged 20 & older. Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease.

Figure 1.17
Estimated prevalence of self-reported kidney disease by state (%), BRFSS participants ages 18 and older, 2012 (N = 471,107) & 2014 (464,617).
(a) 2012
2012
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2012 participants aged 18 & older.
(b) 2014
2014
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2012 participants aged 18 & older.

Figure 1.18
Life expectancy of NHANES participants with or without CKD, 1999–2011
Life expectancy of NHANES participants with or without CKD, 1999–2011
Data source: NHANES 1999–2011 participants age 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation.