Kidney Disease Outcomes and Quality Improvement (KDOQI) CKD Staging Guidelines

Figure 1.1
Prevalence of CKD by stage among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Prevalence of CKD by stage among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviation: CKD, chronic kidney disease.

Figure 1.2
eGFR distribution among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
(a) All Individuals
All Individuals
(b) Individuals 60+ years
Individuals 60+ years
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; SE, standard error. Accounts for change in serum creatinine assays.

Figure 1.3
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) distribution among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) distribution among NHANES participants, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of ACR. Abbreviation: ACR, urine albumin (mg)/creatinine (g) ratio.

Figure 1.4
Percentage of NHANES (1999-2014) participants with ACR >30 mg/g, by eGFR category
Percentage of NHANES (1999-2014) participants with ACR >30 mg/g, by eGFR category

Percentage of NHANES 2011-2014 participants, in the various CKD (eGFR and albuminuria) risk categories (KDIGO 2012)

Prevalence (%) of CKD in NHANES population within age, sex, race/ethnicity, & risk factor categories, 1999-2014

Figure 1.5
Distribution of markers of CKD in NHANES participants with diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & obesity, 2011–2014
Distribution of markers of CKD in NHANES participants with diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardiovascular disease, & obesity, 2011–2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; SR CVD, self-reported cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension.

Figure 1.6
Adjusted odds ratios of CKD in NHANES participants, by risk factor, 1999-2014
Adjusted odds ratios of CKD in NHANES participants, by risk factor, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adj: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.7
Adjusted odds ratios of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 in NHANES participants, by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
(a) Age category
Age category
(b) CKD risk factor
CKD risk factor
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adj: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Figure 1.8
Adjusted odds ratios of urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
Adjusted odds ratios of urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in NHANES participants by age & risk factor, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants age 20 & older; single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR. Adjusted: age, sex, & race; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Whisker lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; SR, self-report.

Socioeconomic factors among individuals with CKD, percent of NHANES participants, 1999-2014

Health Risk Behaviors among individuals with CKD, percent of NHANES participants, 1999-2014

Figure 1.9
NHANES participants physically active, 1999-2014
NHANES participants physically active, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Awareness, treatment, & measures of control of CKD risk factors, percentage of NHANES participants, 1999-2014

Figure 1.10
NHANES participants at target blood pressure, 1999-2014
NHANES participants at target blood pressure, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Figure represents all hypertensive participants including those who were at target blood pressure, probably due to medication. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.11
NHANES participants within cholesterol normal range, 1999-2014
NHANES participants within cholesterol normal range, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.12
Diabetic NHANES participants with glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 1999-2014
Diabetic NHANES participants with glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 1999-2014
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2010 & 2011–2014 participants aged 20 & older. Single-sample estimates of eGFR & ACR; eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Abbreviations: ACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 1.13
NHANES participants with CKD aware of their kidney disease, 1999-2014
(a) By stage
By stage
(b) By low eGFR and albuminuria status
By low eGFR and albuminuria status
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2012 participants aged 20 & older. Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease.

Figure 1.14
Estimated prevalence of self-reported kidney disease by state, BRFSS participants ages 18 and older
(a) 2012
2012
(b) 2013
2013
(c) 2014
2014
(d) 2015
2015
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2012-2015 participants aged 18 & older. 2012 (N=471,107), 2013 (N=491,777), 2014 (N=464,617), and 2015 (N=441,460)