Baseline characteristics of 102,477 incident ESRD veterans compared to all 872,816 USRDS patients who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007 and 3/31/2015 (For gender decomposed components, see Tables 9.2 and 9.3)

Baseline characteristics of 95,559 male incident ESRD veterans compared to all 499,643 USRDS males who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007 and 3/31/2015

Baseline characteristics of 6,918 female incident ESRD veterans compared to all 373,143 USRDS females who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007 and 3/31/2015 (For decomposition of female incident ESRD veterans across incident years, see Table 9.4)

Baseline characteristics of 6,918 female incident ESRD veteran who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007 and 3/31/2015 according to incidence year at transition to ESRD

Figure 9.1
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 99,614 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 (For gender decomposed components, see Figures 9.2 and 9.3) (For decomposition according to cause of ESRD, see Figures 9.4 and 9.5)
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 99,614 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 (For gender decomposed components, see Figures 9.2 and 9.3) (For decomposition according to cause of ESRD, see Figures 9.4 and 9.5)
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.2
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 92,894 male incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 92,894 male incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.3
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 6,720 female incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 6,720 female incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.4
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 43,062 incident ESRD veterans with diabetes as the primary cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 43,062 incident ESRD veterans with diabetes as the primary cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.5
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 32,273 incident ESRD veterans with hypertension as the primary cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
 Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at transition among 32,273 incident ESRD veterans with hypertension as the primary cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.6
Distribution of secular trends of median estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 among 99,614 incident ESRD veterans across the United States
Distribution of secular trends of median estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 among 99,614 incident ESRD veterans across the United States
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (mL/min/1.73m2 per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.7
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope in the one-year prelude (prior to transition) among 29,277 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 (For decomposition according to cause of ESRD, see Figures 9.8 and 9.9)
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope in the one-year prelude (prior to transition) among 29,277 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 (For decomposition according to cause of ESRD, see Figures 9.8 and 9.9)
Data source: VHA and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.8
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope in the one-year prelude (prior to transition) among 14,349 incident ESRD veterans with diabetes as the cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope in the one-year prelude (prior to transition) among 14,349 incident ESRD veterans with diabetes as the cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.9
Median pre-ESRD estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope in the one-year prelude (prior to transition) among 7,845 incident ESRD veterans with hypertension as the cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Median pre-ESRD estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope in the one-year prelude (prior to transition) among 7,845 incident ESRD veterans with hypertension as the cause of ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Figure 9.10
Distribution of secular trends of diabetes (%) as the primary cause of ESRD between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans across the United States
Distribution of secular trends of diabetes (%) as the primary cause of ESRD between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans across the United States
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (% per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.11
Distribution of secular trend of hypertension (%) as the primary cause of ESRD among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of secular trend of hypertension (%) as the primary cause of ESRD among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (% per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Baseline characteristics of 5,169 incident ESRD veterans who received a kidney transplant at or after ESRD transition between 10/1/2007 and 9/1/2015, according to timing of kidney transplant

Figure 9.12
Secular trends in the distribution of preemptive kidney transplant rates among 1,319 incident ESRD veterans across the United States between 10/1/2007-12/31/2014
Secular trends in the distribution of preemptive kidney transplant rates among 1,319 incident ESRD veterans across the United States between 10/1/2007-12/31/2014
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (% per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.13
Seasonal variations across secular trends in the percent of kidney transplants among 1,355 incident ESRD veterans who received a preemptive kidney transplant between 10/1/2007 and 3/31/2015*
(a) Percent of patients for each month per fiscal year over 7.5 years
Percent of patients for each month per fiscal year over 7.5 years
(b) Percent of patients for each month per fiscal year stratified by fiscal year
Percent of patients for each month per fiscal year stratified by fiscal year
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. For Fiscal Year 14/15, percent was based on the averaged total number of preemptive transplants of previous 7 fiscal years. *Values for 10 or fewer patients are suppressed. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.14
Seasonal variations across secular trends in the frequency of transition to ESRD in 102,477 veterans between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
(a) Frequency of patients transitioned to ESRD per month over 7.5 years
Frequency of patients transitioned to ESRD per month over 7.5 years
(b) Frequency of patients transitioned to ESRD per month stratified by fiscal year
Frequency of patients transitioned to ESRD per month stratified by fiscal year
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; No., number.

Figure 9.15
Seasonal variations across secular trends for the one-year all-cause mortality frequency among 21,483 incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007-9/1/2014 and died between 10/1/2008 and 9/1/2014
Seasonal variations across secular trends for the one-year all-cause mortality frequency among 21,483 incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007-9/1/2014 and died between 10/1/2008 and 9/1/2014
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; No., number.

Figure 9.16
Seasonal variations across secular trends for the one-year cardiovascular mortality frequency among 8,004 incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007-8/1/2013 and died from cardiovascular related causes between 10/1/2008 and 9/30/2014
Seasonal variations across secular trends for the one-year cardiovascular mortality frequency among 8,004 incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007-8/1/2013 and died from cardiovascular related causes between 10/1/2008 and 9/30/2014
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; No., number.

Figure 9.17
Seasonal variations across secular trends for the one-year infection-related mortality frequency among 1,690 incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007-8/1/2013 and died from infection-related causes between 10/1/2008 and 8/31/2014*
Seasonal variations across secular trends for the one-year infection-related mortality frequency among 1,690 incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD between 10/1/2007-8/1/2013 and died from infection-related causes between 10/1/2008 and 8/31/2014*
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. *Values for 10 or fewer patients are suppressed. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; No., number.

Figure 9.18
Distribution of proportion of deaths in the first year post-transition to ESRD and between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 attributed to cardiovascular causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans across the United States 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of proportion of deaths in the first year post-transition to ESRD and between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 attributed to cardiovascular causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans across the United States 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA, CMS, and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.19
Secular trends in the proportion of deaths in the first year post-transition to ESRD attributed to cardiovascular causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans who died between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 and transitioned to ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the proportion of deaths in the first year post-transition to ESRD attributed to cardiovascular causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans who died between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 and transitioned to ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA, CMS, and USRDS ESRD Databases. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (% per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.20
Distribution of proportion of deaths in the first year post-ESRD transition attributed to infection-related causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans who died between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 and transitioned to ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of proportion of deaths in the first year post-ESRD transition attributed to infection-related causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans who died between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 and transitioned to ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA, CMS, and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.21
Secular trends in the proportion of deaths in the first year post-ESRD transition attributed to infection-related causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans who died between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 and transitioned to ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the proportion of deaths in the first year post-ESRD transition attributed to infection-related causes among 18,492 incident ESRD veterans who died between 10/1/2007-8/1/2015 and transitioned to ESRD across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA, CMS, and USRDS ESRD Databases. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (% per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.22
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 98,701 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 98,701 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.23
Secular trends in the mean body mass index (BMI) level among 98,701 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 (For decomposition by racial/ethnic categories, see Figures 9.25, 9.27, and 9.29)
Secular trends in the mean body mass index (BMI) level among 98,701 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015 (For decomposition by racial/ethnic categories, see Figures 9.25, 9.27, and 9.29)
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (kg/m2 per year). Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.24
Secular trends in mean body mass index (BMI) across racial/ethnic groups in 98,704 veterans and 838,511 total USRDS patients transitioning to ESRD, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
(a) USRDS cohort
USRDS cohort
(b) TC-CKD cohort
TC-CKD cohort
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.25
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 64,289 Non-Hispanic White incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 64,289 Non-Hispanic White incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.26
Secular trends in the mean body mass index (BMI) level among 64,289 Non-Hispanic White incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the mean body mass index (BMI) level among 64,289 Non-Hispanic White incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (kg/m2 per year). Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.27
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 24,543 Non-Hispanic Black incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 24,543 Non-Hispanic Black incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.28
Secular trends in the mean body mass index (BMI) level among 24,543 Non-Hispanic Black incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the mean body mass index (BMI) level among 24,543 Non-Hispanic Black incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (kg/m2 per year). Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.29
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 6,412 Hispanic incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of mean body mass index (BMI) levels at transition to ESRD among 6,412 Hispanic incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; m, meter.

Figure 9.30
Distribution of proportion of veterans transitioning to ESRD during a Hospitalization Admission among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of proportion of veterans transitioning to ESRD during a Hospitalization Admission among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans across the United States, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA, CMS, and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; Trans., transition; Hosp., hospitalization.

Figure 9.31
Distribution of proportion of veterans with a hospitalization for acute kidney injury in the year prior to transition across the United States among 84,799 incident ESRD veterans with information in the year prior to transition, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of proportion of veterans with a hospitalization for acute kidney injury in the year prior to transition across the United States among 84,799 incident ESRD veterans with information in the year prior to transition, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA, CMS, and USRDS ESRD Databases. Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.32
Distribution of proportion of veterans with an AV fistula as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of proportion of veterans with an AV fistula as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; AV, arteriovenous.

Figure 9.33
Secular trends in the proportion of veterans with an AV fistula as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans, between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the proportion of veterans with an AV fistula as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans, between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data Source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01; (% per year). Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; AV, arteriovenous.

Figure 9.34
Distribution of proportion of veterans with an AV graft as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution of proportion of veterans with an AV graft as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; AV, arteriovenous.

Figure 9.35
Secular trends in the proportion of veterans with an AV graft as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans, between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the proportion of veterans with an AV graft as initial access type across the United States among 102,477 incident ESRD veterans, between 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data Source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: ≤-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01; (% per year). Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; AV, arteriovenous.

Figure 9.36
Trend in serum phosphorus level categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 36,621 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in serum phosphorus level categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 36,621 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mg/dL, milligrams per deciliter.

Figure 9.37
Trend in serum glucose level categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 61,730 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in serum glucose level categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 61,730 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease: and mg/dL, milligrams per deciliter.

Figure 9.38
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum white blood cell count >10 x 103/µL up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 60,036 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum white blood cell count >10 x 10<sup>3</sup>/µL up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 60,036 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; µL, microliter.

Figure 9.39
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum albumin in <3.8 g/dL up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 58,854 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum albumin in <3.8 g/dL up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 58,854 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; g/dL, grams per deciliter.

Figure 9.40
Trend in serum sodium categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 61,990 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/3015
Trend in serum sodium categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 61,990 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/3015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mmol/L, millimoles per liter.

Figure 9.41
Trend in serum hemoglobin categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 59,946 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in serum hemoglobin categories up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 59,946 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; g/dL, grams per deciliter.

Figure 9.42
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum potassium ≥5.5 mEq/L for up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 61,934 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum potassium ≥5.5 mEq/L for up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 61,934 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mEq/L, milliequivalent per liter.

Figure 9.43
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL for up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 59,562 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with serum cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL for up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 59,562 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mg/dL, milligrams per deciliter.

Figure 9.44
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with uric acid >7 mg/dL for up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 31,276 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in proportion of U.S. veteran patients with uric acid >7 mg/dL for up to 5 years prior and 2 years post-transition in 31,276 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mg/dL, milligrams per deciliter.

Figure 9.45
Prescribed dialyzable (a) and non-dialyzable (b) beta blockers to incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015, with data up to -36 months prior to transition (prelude) and up to +36 months after transition (vintage) (data were abstracted from 84,004 veterans)
Prescribed dialyzable (a) and non-dialyzable (b) beta blockers to incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015, with data up to -36 months prior to transition (prelude) and up to +36 months after transition (vintage) (data were abstracted from 84,004 veterans)
Data source: VHA data, CMS Medicare Inpatient and Outpatient data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mo, months.

Figure 9.46
Distribution in the mean pain score across the United States among 44,903 incident ESRD veterans, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Distribution in the mean pain score across the United States among 44,903 incident ESRD veterans, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data Source: VHA data. Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.47
Secular trends in the mean pain score across the United States among 44,903 incident ESRD veterans, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the mean pain score across the United States among 44,903 incident ESRD veterans, 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: <-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (score per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.48
Trend in proportion of patients in pain score categories with data up to -36 months prior to transition (prelude) and up to +36 months after transition (vintage) in 66,042 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Trend in proportion of patients in pain score categories with data up to -36 months prior to transition (prelude) and up to +36 months after transition (vintage) in 66,042 veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.49
Prescribed opioids in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015, with data up to -36 months prior to transition (prelude) and up to +36 months after transition (vintage) (data were abstracted from 84,004 veterans)
Prescribed opioids in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015, with data up to -36 months prior to transition (prelude) and up to +36 months after transition (vintage) (data were abstracted from 84,004 veterans)
Data source: VHA data, CMS Medicare Inpatient and Outpatient data. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; mo, months.

Figure 9.50
Secular trends in proportion of patients with an opioid prescription in the 6 months prior to ESRD transition in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in proportion of patients with an opioid prescription in the 6 months prior to ESRD transition in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: CMS and VHA ESRD Databases. Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.51
Proportion of patients with an opioid prescription in the 6 months prior to ESRD transition across the United States in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Proportion of patients with an opioid prescription in the 6 months prior to ESRD transition across the United States in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: VHA data, CMS Medicare Inpatient and Outpatient data. Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Figure 9.52
Secular trends in the proportion of patients with an opioid prescription in the 6 months prior to ESRD transition across the United States in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Secular trends in the proportion of patients with an opioid prescription in the 6 months prior to ESRD transition across the United States in incident ESRD veterans who transitioned to ESRD during 10/1/2007-3/31/2015
Data source: USRDS ESRD Database. Decrease: <-0.01; Constant: <-0.01 to ≤0.01; Increase: >0.01 (% per year). Abbreviation: ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

Demographic characteristics of the Kaiser Permanente Southern California member population compared to the 2010 U.S. census and California populations

Crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates among Kaiser Permanente Southern California members who transitioned to ESRD between 1/1/2007 and 12/31/2016

Figure 9.53
Trend of initial dialysis access type used among the 11,927 KP-SC incident dialysis patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend of initial dialysis access type used among the 11,927 KP-SC incident dialysis patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; PD, peritoneal dialysis.

Figure 9.54
Seasonal trend among 11,927 KP-SC incident dialysis patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Seasonal trend among 11,927 KP-SC incident dialysis patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; Jan, January; Feb, February; Mar, March; Apr, April; Jun, June; Jul, July; Aug, August; Sep, September; Oct, October; Nov, November; Dec, December.

Figure 9.55
Annualized unadjusted mortality rate of the 11,927 KP-SC incident ESRD patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016 and were followed for up to 24 months
Annualized unadjusted mortality rate of the 11,927 KP-SC incident ESRD patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016 and were followed for up to 24 months
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California.

Number of hospitalizations pre- and post-transition among the 11,927 KP-SC incident dialysis patients during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016

Comparison of hospitalizations for heart failure and acute kidney injury for KP-SC incident dialysis patients who died at two months vs. alive more than 12 months after ESRD transition

Figure 9.56
Selected (a) comorbid conditions for calculation of the (b) Charlson Comorbidity Index, prior to transition to ESRD in 11,927 KP-SC incident dialysis patients during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
(a) Comorbid conditions
Comorbid conditions
(b) Charlson Comorbidity Index score
Charlson Comorbidity Index score
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. aExcludes renal disease (not ESRD). Abbreviations: HF, heart failure; compl, complications; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; dz, disease; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; Kaiser Permanente Southern California; MI, myocardial infarction; Mod, moderate; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; PUD, peptic ulcer disease; sev, severe.

Figure 9.57
Trend in serum creatinine level during the prelude (pre-ESRD) period over 20 quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in serum creatinine level during the prelude (pre-ESRD) period over 20 quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; mg/dL, milligrams per deciliter; p, percentile.

Figure 9.58
Trend in eGFR during the prelude (pre-ESRD) period over 20 quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in eGFR during the prelude (pre-ESRD) period over 20 quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: eGFR; estimated glomerular filtration rate ; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; mL/min/1.73m2, milliliter per minute per 1.73 meters squared; p, percentile.

Figure 9.59
Trends in eGFRa during the prelude (pre-ESRD) time over 20 quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016, stratified by age-at-incidence
Trends in eGFRa during the prelude (pre-ESRD) time over 20 quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to ESRD during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016, stratified by age-at-incidence
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. aMedian eGFR. Abbreviations: eGFR; estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; mL/min/1.73m2, milliliter per minute per 1.73 meters squared.

Figure 9.60
Trends in eGFRa during the prelude (pre-ESRD) period over 20 calendar quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016, stratified by cause of ESRD
Trends in eGFRa during the prelude (pre-ESRD) period over 20 calendar quarters among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016, stratified by cause of ESRD
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. aMedian eGFR. Abbreviations: eGFR; estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; mL/min/1.73m2, milliliter per minute per 1.73 meters squared.

Figure 9.61
Trend in hemoglobin levels (g/dL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in hemoglobin levels (g/dL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; HGB, hemoglobin; g/dL, grams per deciliter; p, percentile.

Figure 9.62
Trend in HbA1C levels (%) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in HbA1C levels (%) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; Hgb, hemoglobin; p, percentile.

Figure 9.63
Trend in phosphorus levels (mg/dL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in phosphorus levels (mg/dL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; mg/dL, milligrams per deciliter; p, percentile.

Figure 9.64
Trend in parathyroid levels (pg/mL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in parathyroid levels (pg/mL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; PTH, parathyroid hormone; pg/mL, picograms per milliliter; p, percentile.

Figure 9.65
Trend in albumin levels (g/dL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Trend in albumin levels (g/dL) over 8 quarters each in the prelude (pre-ESRD) and vintage (post-ESRD) periods among 11,927 KP-SC patients who transitioned to dialysis during 1/1/2007-12/31/2016
Data source: Kaiser Permanente Southern California Electronic Health Records. Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; KP-SC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; g/dL, grams per deciliter; p, percentile.